M.K. Singh, A.K. Dixit and R.R. Singh
The study has assessed the social status, sources of income and constraints of rural households in livelihood under<br />SRLS programme of NAIP. Data on 404 households was collected from 16 villages from two disadvantageous<br />districts namely Hamirpur and Mahoba of Bundelkhand region. The average land holding size, total income per<br />household per year and average family size was 1.42Ã‚Â±0.07 ha, Rs. 44332 and 5.80Ã‚Â±0.15, respectively in Hamirpur<br />and 1.71Ã‚Â±0.08 ha, Rs. 46671 and 5.97Ã‚Â±0.12, respectively in Mahoba district. People of backward castes (>67%)<br />predominate in rural social composition. Marginal and small farmers constitute more than 58 per cent rural<br />population in both the districts. Major sources of income were agriculture, wages and livestock which accounted<br />for 52.4, 32.0 and 15.0 per cent, respectively in Hamirpur and 36.1, 40.3 and 23.6 per cent respectively, in Mahoba<br />district. Wheat is also important crop and production of pulse and oilseed crops in rain-fed fields was low ranged<br />from 3-7 and 2-5 qt. per hectare. Less than 13 per cent area of total cropped area was sown twice in a year in both<br />the districts. Forced migration of people was ranged from 5 to 80 per cent over the villages with an average of 42<br />per cent. Goat, cow and buffaloes were major livestock species and kept by more than 89 per cent people irrespective<br />of landholding size and caste. Average herd/ flock size of cattle, goat and buffalo were 2.27, 3.05 and 1.84,<br />respectively in Hamirpur and 2.42, 4.06 and 1.84, respectively in Mahoba district. Overall livestock productivity is<br />low and primarily attributed to inadequate feed and fodder. Major livelihood constraints were poor management<br />of rain water, lack of irrigation sources and non-functional irrigation network, top soil erosion, huge gap in<br />production and potential yield of crops and livestock, scarcity of feed-fodder, lack of institutional credit and<br />knowledge gap. Comprehensive programmes are required to uptake and strengthening of rain water harvesting,<br />integrated farming and institutional credit.
Keyword: Bundelkhand; Innovation; Income; Sustainable; Non-farm sector; Integrated farming; Migration