Lokendra Singh Kishnawat, Lavleesh Garg and Ekta
Department of Extension Education, COA, PAU, Ludhiana
Agriculture plays a pivotal role in ensuring food security and sustainable development worldwide. With the increasing global population and changing climatic conditions, there is an urgent need for innovative solutions to optimize agricultural practices. Smart technologies, such as the Internet of Things (IoT), precision agriculture, artificial intelligence (AI), and automation, have shown immense potential to enhance productivity, reduce resource wastage, and improve overall efficiency in agriculture. Understanding and addressing the issues and difficulties posed by smart agriculture is vital in order to fully realize its’ potential. By examining the new trends in digital technologies, this study aims to contribute to the creation of an overview that outlines the smart technologies that are currently accessible and how they are used in agriculture. A thorough analysis of the latest publications in the scientific literature on smart crop farming was done for this purpose. The extent of digital technologies employed in agriculture was analyzed in the context of service type, technology readiness level, and farm type through analysis of 20 research papers. The findings demonstrate that digital technologies such as autonomous robotic systems, the Internet of Things, and machine learning are extensively researched. Moreover, it has been noted that the majority of cases are still at the prototype stage. However, their widespread adoption faces significant challenges, and this review aims to identify and address the roadblocks that hinder the effective integration of smart technologies in agriculture. Additionally, the review seeks to discuss extension strategies that can facilitate and promote the adoption of these technologies among farmers.