Sanjay Singh Rathore, Rajiv Kumar Singh, Subhash Babu, Kapila Shekhawat, PK Upadhyay
ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) New Delhi, India
Sustainable farming is need of hour for livelihood security of the framers. In this regard, the Integrated farming system (IFS) is a potential option for sustainability transformations of agri-food systems. Maintaining diversity is vital for ensuring sustainability in the production system. IFS based diversity of management practices, components, and their interactions result in perfect recycling and circulation within production systems, acting as a sustainability tool box for minimizing trade-off within systems. The complementary resource use in IFS provide important information for sustainability transformations, there is a need for more holistic, systems-wide, and integrative research work on potentially competing or supplementary sustainability narratives.There was 21-247 % increase in system productivity under the alternative system over the rice-wheat system, the maximum increase was in okra-cole crops-cowpea. Integration of VP+PVC+FC+AHS+MP+BK+VC produced maximum profitability, employment opportunities and maximum sustainable livelihood index (70.2%), and higher energy (1.5 kg/MJ)) water productivity (6.72 kg/m3). The crop residue used for mushroom recycled maximum nutrient in the system (20.71, 18.57 and 39.38 kg/ha). The growing population globally results in declining holdings size, particularly in India and China. It has become a daunting task to make these farms more productive, economically viable, and environmentally sustainable so that the livelihood of marginal farmers can be ensured in the long run. As a result, an IFS with various modules was evaluated for its effectiveness in improving their livelihood and ensuring environmental sustainability. Therefore, the study proved the optimized integration of VP+PVC+FC+AHS+MP+BK+VC as IFS module for marginal land holdings can bring much desired results in terms of enhanced productivity, income, improved livelihood, lesser environmental foot prints and will also ensure long term sustainability from marginal land holdings.