Madhusmita Sahoo and Souvik Ghosh
Visva-Bharati University, Sriniketan, West Bengal
Agricultural Innovation System is a network of different actors (research organisation, extension organisation, farmer organisation and other stakeholders) which together with supporting institutions and policies bring new agricultural products, processes and other innovation include social and economic use. Extension Advisory Services always give wheels to the farmers to avail the new innovations in agriculture. Conventionally, Extension Advisory Services only limited to transfer of technology. But over a period, it gives more emphasis on capacity building, human nutrition, mobilisation, risk and disaster, climate change adaptation, rebuilding after emergency and sustainability of farming community. Taking note on this, major reforms in extension has been taking place viz., decentralisation, privatisation, contracting, pluralistic approach, cost recovery, involvement of NGOs and farmer-based organisation. Extension Advisory Services concerned more on demand driven approaches for which many public and private institutions are ready to cater the farmers diverse needs. Predominantly the transfer of technology need is fulfilled by the state line departments, capacity building need by the KVKs, empowerment through group approach considering whole farming system need by the ATMA including the gender mainstreaming, value addition and marketing of the farm produce and farm credit need through SHGs promoted and linked to the banks by the NGOs. FPOs as a part of farmers led extension approach largely fulfil the marketing needs with an improved income of the farmers. Present investigation preliminary found that Agricultural Extension Systems efficacy and efficiency are being hampered by institutional factors as the institutions are working at their individual levels without any functional convergence at the grassroot level. The convergence models require to be developed and tested with respect to implementation of different schemes and activities catering the diverse needs of different clients, viz., farmers, farm women and farm youths.