Laksheeta Chauhan, Ramesh Chand Bunkar and Devendra Singh
Rajasthan College of Agriculture, MPUAT, Udaipur, Rajasthan
Agriculture is considered a key sector providing food for the growing population and ensuring the viability and resilience of rural areas. At the same time, agriculture is facing several global challenges related to the scarcity of resources, climate change and food security. A new possibility to overcome these global issues, Agriculture 4.0 comes into the same. Agriculture 4.0 as a term is related to different concepts such as digital agriculture, smart, vertical and precision farming. The main focus of Agriculture 4.0 is to increase technology adoption rates in farming, driving effective and efficient change, that increases productivity in a sustainable and eco-friendly way. Agriculture 4.0 focuses on using robotics and Artificial Intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT), Vertical farms, drones in farming practices. This will leads to increased crop yields, cost and manual labour reductions, along with reducing the wastage of water, pesticides and fertilizer. Agriculture 1.0 added the steam engine as the steam tractor. Agriculture 1.0 is subsistence farming that uses traditional farming practices. Electricity gave way to Agriculture 2.0, which provided industrialization solutions that helped increase production capacities, mainly in the post-harvest process, such as oil mills. The 20th century introduced Agriculture 3.0 where it was possible to automate agricultural processes, making it normal to see machines that carry out the complete cycle in tasks such as planting, harvesting, fertilization, etc. Now with the fourth agriculture revolution popularly called Agriculture 4.0. Agricultural world has noticed improvements through exploitation of information. For example, meteorological information, monitoring of pests and diseases, in order to achieve better planning of the use of water, fertilizers and phytosanitary products.