Salam Prabex, Mahesh Chander, M.P. Sagar, Vimla Saran and Vallabhaneni Srikanth
ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute Izatnagar, Bareilly (U.P.)
Globally, rising incomes, urbanization, and population pressure are causing an increase in the consumption of animal-based foods and growing commercialization, which in turn is creating a demand for more livestock production. Livestock are considered to have the most significant impact on climate by generating GHGs like methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2). The availability of feed and the growth rates, production of milk and eggs, reproductive efficiency, sickness, and mortality of livestock are all impacted by the climate. In addition, 14.5 per cent of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are produced by cattle, which is a major contributor to climate change. Methane is a significant greenhouse gas due to its global warming potential and atmospheric lifetime. Climate Smart Livestock (CSL) is a collection of different technical solutions to reduce the impact of climate change brought on by global warming on livestock and vice versa. CSL strategies include mitigation (to reduce the sources of greenhouse gases) and adaptation (to reduce the vulnerability of climate change effects). The measures that can sustainably increase cattle productivity, offer adaptability and reduce greenhouse gas emissions while ensuring food security are highlighted by CSL. The role of extension and advisory services is essential for sustainable and climate-smart livestock farming as well as combating climate change in developing countries like India, where the majority of livestock farmers are marginal to small. Extension providers can play a significant role in supporting Climate-Smart Farming through technology development and information dissemination, strengthening farmer’s capacity through facilitation and brokering, and advocacy and policy support.