IARI, Pusa, New Delhi
The Agricultural Revolution has progressed from its early stages (1.0) to the modern era (4.0), where it is now known as the ongoing Digital or Smart Agriculture Revolution, driven by digital technologies. Similar to Industry 4.0, the emergence of Agriculture 4.0 marks a revolutionary period in agriculture shaped by the fusion of disruptive technologies such as IoT, big data analytics, AI, cloud computing, robotics, and more, bringing in digitalization and innovation throughout the sector. Agriculture 4.0 offers significant potential to transform farming practices by improving efficiency, productivity, and sustainability. Numerous benefits come with Agriculture 4.0, including increased productivity brought on by automation and data-driven decision-making, which optimises resource use and boosts crop yields. Precision farming, made possible by sensors and drones, enables precise resource application while crop health is improved by remote monitoring. Through minimising chemical use and resource waste, data-driven insights support sustainable practices and lessen their negative effects on the environment. Smart farming technologies are seen by politicians and experts as having significant potential to enhance farmers' economic performance and promote sustainability in agriculture. However, the adoption of Agriculture 4.0 brings challenges such as high initial costs, the need for technical skills, data privacy concerns, technology dependency risks, and uneven adoption. It is crucial to address these issues to promote the equitable and inclusive adoption of Agriculture 4.0, particularly concerning the effective engagement of smallholder farmers. For the successful adoption of these technologies among farmers, research is necessary to create appropriate extension strategies.