Livelihood Patterns and Resource Base of Tribals in Koraput and Rayagada District of Odisha

Abha Singh and B.N.Sadangi


A study was conducted to examine the livelihood patterns and resource base of tribals of Odisha. Farming, forest, wage, migration and service /business were major livelihood patterns, with a very low annual income. High level of illiteracy (68% in males and 95% in females) with small and nuclear family was common features. The level of advance skill was quite low (less than 10%) in comparison to traditional skill like shifting cultivation (all males and more than 80 % in females) that they acquire by inheritance. Sources of farm technologies were villagers and NGOs. Most of them (87.50%) relied on river, stream, open space and pond for bathing. Only 50.83 per cent households had electric connection and others were depending on kerosene for light. Fuel wood, wood, tamarind and mahua were forest produces of high importance where as leaves; mango kernels, tubers and bamboo were important forest products. Timber, gum and raisin, bark, honey, grasses and mushroom were less important. The households, on an average, owned 1.45 goats, 1.79 cows and 3.68 poultry birds and 0.33 piggeries for their own household purposes such as farm work and food. Tribal households accept the ethnic leadership. Poor education, low resource base and insufficient infrastructure undermine the livelihood patterns; therefore tribals in the study area deserve special attention for strengthening their livelihoods

Keyword: Livelihood patterns, trib

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